AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine kinase and a driving or deterrent
factor in the development of neurodegenerative diseases and dementia. AMPK affects intracellular
proteins like the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) Peroxisome proliferator-activated
receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (among others) contributes to a wide range of intracellular activities
based on its downstream molecules such as energy balancing (ATP synthesis), extracellular inflammation,
cell growth, and neuronal cell death (such as apoptosis, necrosis, and necroptosis). Several
studies have looked at the dual role of AMPK in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s
disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and Huntington disease (HD) but the exact effect of this
enzyme on dementia, stroke, and motor neuron dysfunction disorders has not been elucidated yet.
In this article, we review current research on the effects of AMPK on the brain to give an overview
of the relationship. More specifically, we review the neuroprotective or neurodegenerative effects
of AMPK or AMPK activators like metformin, resveratrol, and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-
1-β-d-ribofuranoside on neurological diseases and dementia, which exert through the intracellular
molecules involved in neuronal survival or death.