Nanomedicine has emerged as a lucrative option, attracting the attention of scientific
and industrial stalwarts for its enormous potential and new business opportunities in the health sector.
It encompasses physical, chemical, and biological interventions used for the transformation of
bulk materials into nanomaterials (NMs) with particles size ~ 1-100 nm for highly specific medical
applications. Therefore, its effects in diagnosis, efficacy, treatment and prevention of diseases may
easily be foreseen. The credit goes to nanotechnology, which has emerged with the ability to manipulate
the NMs concerning size, shape, composition as well as surface characteristics. Due to the
advantages of their tiny size as well as novel properties, NMs are useful for loading more drugs
with controlled release and specific targeting. Although full bloom of nanomedicine realization
might take years, recent innovations in formulations of nanotechnology-based smart drug/vaccine
delivery systems are beginning to change the landscape of future medicines. They are being designed
to overcome biological barriers in the living systems by improving the delivery and efficacy
of traditional therapeutics and reducing the toxicity by specificity to target cells/tissues. This review
focuses on basic understanding and progress in the field of nanomedicine (especially
nanocarriers-based drug and vaccine delivery), including nanoformulation of Amphotericin B with
functionalized carbon nanotubes for the therapy of visceral leishmaniasis.