Objective: In this review, we discuss the emerging evidence for the effectiveness of cannabinoids in
the treatment of cancer and inflammation. The remarkable effects of this study will help in supporting the traditional
evidence for their successful application in the treatment of pain and cancer-related side effects.
Methods: We searched Pub Med (132 articles) and Google scholar (9 articles) databases and gathered the clinical
(4 articles), and preclinical (28 articles) studies, reports on cell culture models (30 articles), and other original
and review articles (78 articles) related to inflammation, cancer, and cannabinoids.
Results: Cannabinoids are described in three different forms, comprising endo- phyto- and synthetic compounds
that exert biological effects. The molecular and cellular pathways of endogenous cannabinoids in the
maintenance of homeostasis are well documented. In addition to classical cannabinoid receptors type 1 and 2,
Vanilloid receptors and G protein-coupled receptor 55 were identified as common receptors. Subsequently, the
effectiveness of phyto- and synthetic cannabinoids mediated by cannabinoid receptors has been demonstrated
in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases as well as gastrointestinal and
respiratory inflammations. Another accepted property of cannabinoids is their anti-cancer effects. Cannabinoids
were found to be effective in the treatment of lung, colorectal, prostate, breast, pancreas, and hepatic cancers.
The anti-cancer effects of cannabinoids were characterized by their anti-proliferative property, inhibition of cancer
cell migration, suppression of vascularization, and induction of apoptosis.
Conclusion: The current review provides an overview of the role of the endocannabinoid system in the mediation
of physiological functions and the type and expression of cannabinoids receptors under physiological and
pathological conditions. In addition, the molecular pathways involved in the effects of cannabinoids and the effectiveness
of cannabinoids in the treatment of inflammations and cancers are highlighted.