Background: Nowadays, the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing system has become
a popular bioengineering-based tool for various applications. Owing to its high-target
specificity, efficiency, versatility, and simplicity, it has gained attention as a robust
tool for molecular biology research, which unveils the biological functions of unexplored
genes and engineers the metabolic pathways. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and
Escherichia coli are regarded as the most commonly used expression platforms for industrial-
scale production of recombinant proteins. The emergence of the CRISPR-Cas9
genome editing system promotes the current status of expression hosts towards controllable
and predictable strains.
Objective: This paper presents the current status of expression hosts for biopharmaceutical
production. Some major accomplishments in the utilization of the CRISPR-Cas9
genome editing tool in the different prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems are discussed,
and more importantly, the future directions of this newly arrived technology to make the
next-generation cell factories with improved or novel properties are suggested. Moreover,
the challenges faced in recent patents in this field are also discussed.
Results and Conclusion: The CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing tool has been adopted to be
utilized in some major expression platforms. CRISPeering has been successfully employed
for genome editing in different prokaryotic and eukaryotic host cells. The emergence
of systems metabolic engineering, systems biology, and synthetic biology fortify
the current situation of the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing system.