Background: Chagas disease is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan
parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and is transmitted to humans through the excreta of infected
blood-sucking triatomine bugs. According to the World Health Organization, 6 to 7 million people
are infected with T. cruzi worldwide, mainly in Latin America, with more than 10000 deaths annually.
Aim of the Study: The present study aims to provide comprehensive literature information on the
importance of triazole-containing heterocycles in developing anti-Chagas disease agents.
Methodology: The embodied information was acquired without date limitation by December 2020
using various electronic databases including, SciFinder, PubMed (National Library of Medicine),
Science Direct, Wiley, ACS (American Chemical Society), SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library
Online), Google Scholar, Springer, Scopus, and Web of Science.
Results: Upon in vitro studies, more than 100 triazole-containing heterocycles have been predicted
as active compounds against the pathogen responsible for the American trypanosomiasis. However,
less is known about their in vivo activity in animal models and their clinical studies in humans.
Moreover, the pharmacokinetic studies of these bioactive compounds are still pending. Despite the
variety of mechanisms of action attributed to most of these molecules, the exact mechanism involved
is still controversial. Thus, in vivo experiments, followed by pharmacokinetics, and the
mechanism of action of the most active compounds, should be the subject of future investigation.
Conclusion: All in all, recent studies have demonstrated the importance of triazole-containing heterocycles
in search of potential candidates for drug development against Chagas disease. Nonetheless,
the use of new catalysts and chemical transformations is expected to provide avenues for the
synthesis of unexplored triazole derivatives, leading to the development of triazole-containing compounds
with new properties and trypanocidal activity.