Potential of Medicinal Plants as Neuroprotective and Therapeutic Properties Against Amyloid-β-Related Toxicity, and Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity in Human Neural Cells

Author(s): Devina Lobine, Nabeelah Sadeer, Sharmeen Jugreet, Shanoo Suroowan, Bibi Sumera Keenoo, Muhammad Imran, Katharigatta N. Venugopala, Faten Mohamed Ibrahim, Gokhan Zengin, Mohamad Fawzi Mahomoodally*

Journal Name: Current Neuropharmacology

Volume 19 , Issue 9 , 2021


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Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are notorious neurodegenerative diseases amongst the general population. Being age-associated diseases, the prevalence of AD and PD is forecasted to rapidly escalate with the progressive aging population of the world. These diseases are complex and multifactorial. Among different events, amyloid β peptide (Aβ) induced toxicity is a well‐established pathway of neuronal cell death, which plays a vital function in AD. Glutamate, the major excitatory transmitter, acts as a neurotoxin when present in excess at the synapses; this latter mechanism is termed excitotoxicity. It is hypothesised that glutamate-induced excitotoxicity contributes to the pathogenesis of AD and PD. No cure for AD and PD is currently available and the currently approved drugs available to treat these diseases have limited effectiveness and pose adverse effects. Indeed, plants have been a major source for the discovery of novel pharmacologically active compounds for distinct pathological conditions. Diverse plant species employed for brain-related disorders in traditional medicine are being explored to determine the scientific rationale behind their uses. Herein, we present a comprehensive review of plants and their constituents that have shown promise in reversing the (i) amyloid-β -related toxicity in AD models and (ii) glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in AD and PD models. This review summarizes information regarding the phytochemistry, biological and cellular activities, and clinical trials of several plant species in view to provide adequate scientific baseline information that could be used in the drug development process, thereby providing effective leads for AD and PD.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, beta-amyloid, Parkinson disease, glutamate excitotoxicity, plant derived-compounds, neurodegenerative diseases (NDS).

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Article Details

VOLUME: 19
ISSUE: 9
Year: 2021
Published on: 11 April, 2021
Page: [1416 - 1441]
Pages: 26
DOI: 10.2174/1570159X19666210412095251
Price: $65

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