Background: Infectious agents may be involved in the pathogenesis of vascular disease
and related complications. The aim of this review is to analyze the most relevant information on
the common infections related to vascular disease, discussing the main pathophysiological mechanisms.
Methods: In the current review, the most important evidence on the issue of infections and vascular
disease is searched on Medline, Scopus, and ScienceDirect database.
Results: Among infectious agents, herpesviruses, parvovirus B19, hepatitis viruses, human immunodeficiency
virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, treponema pallidum, mycobacterium
tuberculosis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus, and candida albicans seem
to particularly related to vascular disease.
Conclusion: Infectious agents may affect vessel’s homeostasis and functionality, both on the arterial
and venous side, by means of several pathophysiological mechanisms such as dysregulation in
vasomotor function, thromboembolic complications, initiation and progression of atherosclerosis,
alteration of perivascular adipose tissue, recruiting inflammatory cells and molecules.