Background: Sufficient attention was not paid to the effects of microtubule-associated
protein tau (MAPT) and plasma tau protein on cognition.
Objective: A total of 3072 people in rural China were recruited. They were provided with questionnaires,
and blood samples were obtained.
Methods: The MMSE score was used to divide the population into cognitive impairment group
and control group. First, logistic regression analysis was used to explore the possible factors influencing
cognitive function. Second, 1837 samples were selected for SNP detection through stratified
sampling. Third, 288 samples were selected to test three plasma biomarkers (tau, phosphorylated
tau, and Aβ-42).
Results: For the MAPT rs242557, people with AG genotypes were 1.32 times more likely to develop
cognitive impairment than those with AA genotypes, and people with GG genotypes were 1.47
times more likely to develop cognitive impairment than those with AG phenotypes. The plasma tau
protein concentration was also increased in the population carrying G (P = 0.020). The plasma tau
protein was negatively correlated with the MMSE score (P = 0.004).
Conclusion: The mutation of MAPT rs242557 (A > G) increased the risk of cognitive impairment
and the concentration of plasma tau protein.