Background: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and then spread worldwide rapidly. The records from World Health Organisation (WHO), Centres of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) backup the fact that no medications have proven to be completely effective for prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2. The clinical trials are underway for many repurposed, investigational drugs and vaccine candidates. BioNTech and Pfizer Inc, Moderna, Gamaleya institute and University of Oxford (collaboration with AstraZeneca) announced positive results in the Phase 3 interim analyses of vaccine trials in November 2020. Twelve countries have approved Pfizer- BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for emergency use, as of December 2020.
Objectives: The objective was to summarize the repurposed/investigational drugs, their mechanism of action, and rationale for their use in COVID-19 treatment. The article also aimed to summarize the vaccine trials that are currently undergoing across the globe.
Methods: In order to find the content for review, studies defining COVID-19 chronology, repurposed drugs along with their mode of action and potential vaccine trials were studied and summarized.
Results and Conclusion: The article summarizes potential therapeutic candidates (repurposed and investigational agents) for SARS-CoV-2, their possible mechanism of action and discussion related to their involvement in recent clinical trials. Innovative vaccine platform technologies are also highlighted that are recently being used in the vaccine production pipeline.