Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread worldwide and poses a
great threat to global health. COVID-19 has also an unneglected effect on migraine patients. Migraine
attack frequency is one of the migraine characteristics, and its impact during COVID-19
needs further research. We aimed to evaluate whether migraine attack frequency during the
COVID-19 pandemic differed from pre-COVID-19 attack frequency and explore possible influencing
factors during the pandemic.
Methods: This prospective cohort study enrolled 187 migraine patients from the Department of
Neurology of West China Hospital from October 2019 to December 2019. After the inclusion and
exclusion criteria, a total of 157 patients were included. We collected demographic data, clinical
characteristics, and epidemiological contact information and followed up on March 2020. Then,
paired-samples T-tests, logistic regression and interaction tests were used to analyze the data.
Results: We found that the migraine attack frequency was 2.47 ± 1.12 before and 3.54 ± 1.79 during
COVID-19 (P<0.0001). Then, we divided patients into two groups based on the difference in
migraine attack frequency between the COVID-19 and pre-COVID-19 periods and employed logistic
regression analysis. In the logistic regression analysis, divorced status (OR = 6.53, P = 0.0453),
good sleep pre-COVID-19 and poor sleep during COVID-19 (OR = 3.11, P = 0.0432) had independent
effects on migraine attack frequency during the COVID-19 pandemic. We found no interaction
in poor sleep during COVID-19 between various subgroups.
Conclusion: We found that migraineurs’ headache attacks were more frequent during COVID-19
than pre-COVID-19 and that increased migraine attack frequency was independently related to divorced
status and poor sleep during COVID-19.