Targeting inhibitory receptors on T cells in the tumor sites can promote effective anti-tumor immunity in bladder cancer. Unfortunately, the main dilemma is that a large number of patients remain refractory to CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1 blockade therapies. T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) is an inhibitory receptor expressed on T cells and innate immune cells. Both in vivo and in vitro data from patients with advanced cancers support the role of Tim-3 inhibition in satisfactory anti-tumor immunity. In bladder cancer, the expression level of Tim-3 significantly increases with advanced pathological grade and T stage. Therefore, rationality implies that designing novel monoclonal antibodies reactive with Tim-3 alone or in combination with other checkpoint inhibitors may indicate a favorable response in bladder cancer. Here, we aimed to investigate the possibility of targeting Tim-3 as a novel anti-cancer treatment for bladder cancer.
Keywords: Bladder cancer, T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3), checkpoint inhibitor, inhibitory receptor, immunotherapy, monoclonal antibodies, anti-cancer treatment.
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