Background: Hydroxytyrosol is one of the phenolic compounds of olive oil and can induce anticancer
effects on colorectal cancer cells.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the free hydroxytyrosol and nano-capsulated
hydroxytyrosol effects on the cell cycle arrest in HT-29 colorectal cancer cell line.
Methods: The nano-capsulated hydroxytyrosol was synthesized in poly lactide-co-glycolide-co-polyacrylic acid
(PLGA-PAA) copolymer. MTT assay was performed to evaluate the anti-proliferative and anti-tumor effects of
the free hydroxytyrosol and nano-capsulated hydroxytyrosol. Finally, the relative expression of CDKN1A,
CDKN1B, and CCND1 genes was evaluated in control and treated colorectal cancer cells by using Real-Time
Results: The obtained results from the MTT assay showed that the cytotoxic effects of the nano-capsulated
hydroxytyrosol on the colorectal cancer cell line (IC50= 6PPM) were significantly more than free hydroxytyrosol
(IC50= 12PPM) after 72h. Also, nano-capsulated hydroxytyrosol showed more significant effects on the upregulation
of CDKN1A and CDKN1B genes and down-regulation of the CCND1 gene in colorectal cancer cells.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study showed that hydroxytyrosol led to the death of colorectal cancer
cells through cell cycle arrest. Also, the PLGA-PAA copolymer dramatically caused to increase the cytotoxic
effects of the hydroxytyrosol on the colorectal cancer cells.