Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the main cellular receptor for
the entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and acts as a pro-inflammatory
mediator of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2
infection is influenced by the pro-inflammatory mediators. The specific microRNAs (miRNAs) influence
the ACE2 expression and are accountable for the increased circulatory pro-inflammatory
mediator levels. Thus, host factors play a crucial role in COVID-19 pathophysiology. The pathogenesis
of COVID-19 disease is not well understood. Hence we comprehended the role of miRNAs,
pro-inflammatory cytokines, and ACE2 genes in COVID-19 pathophysiology.
Methods: We utilized multiple databases, specifically EMBASE, PubMed (Medline), and Google
Scholar, for our search.
Discussion: SARS-CoV-2 genes could be the target of host miRNAs. The miRNAs regulate the expression
of ACE2 in various organs, including the kidney, heart, blood vessels, and lung. ACE2
acts as a pro-inflammatory mediator of SARS-CoV-2 associated disease. Pro-inflammatory cytokines
(IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF) have been associated with severe COVID-19 disease. Hence variation
in expression of miRNAs would influence the regulation of COVID-19 pathophysiology. The
clinical outcomes of COVID-19 are variable which could be linked with the difference in binding
of host miRNA to the target genes.
Conclusion: Correlation of these genes with severe or critical stages of patients will provide biomarkers
for the severity of lung inflammation which would be useful in the rapid identification of
patients in need of hospital admission. Analysis of the relationship between the miRNAs and ACE2
will be helpful in designing anti-miR therapy for ACE2-related SARS-CoV-2 infection.