Background: Red mamey fruit known as P. sapota, comes from trees found in Mesoamerica and Asia. This fruit is considered a nutraceutical food due to it’s a food and has multiple beneficial health including anti-amyloidogenic activity and potential anti-tumorigenic property. Red mamey fruit contain a variety of carotenoids including novel ketocarotenoids such as sapotexanthin and cryptocapsin. A ketocarotenoid is a chemical compound with a carbonyl group present in the β-ring or in the double bond chain of a carotenoid. In red mamey, the 3'-deoxy-k-end group in sapotexanthin has proved to be an important pro-vitamin A source, which is essential for maintaining a healthy vision and cognitive processes.
Objective: Summarize the chemistry and biological activity of the studied carotenoids present in this fruit until now.
Method: An exhaustive extraction is the most usual methodology to isolate and thoroughly characterize the carotenoids present in this fruit. High performance liquid chromatography is used to determine the profile of total carotenoid and its purity. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization is used to determine the molecular weight of carotenoid. Nuclear magnetic resonance is used to determine the structure of carotenoids.
Result: For each 100 g of fresh weight, 0.12 mg of total carotenoid from this fruit can be obtained. Out of the more than 47 reported carotenoids in red mamey, only 34 have a detailed characterization.
Conclusion: it is important to continue studying the chemical composition and biological activity of this unique tropical fruit with commercial and nutritional value.