The neuron is high-energy utilizing tissue. The rate of neuronal cell respiration is higher
than in other cells. Cellular respiration occurs with mitochondria. The healthy production and functions
of mitochondria play a key role in the maintenance of healthy neurons. In pathological conditions
such as neurodegenerative diseases, healthy mitochondria help to alleviate pathological
events in neuronal cells. Conversely, mitochondrial dysfunction promotes the acceleration of the
neurodegenerative process. Furthermore, glial-derived mitochondria contribute to multiple roles in
the regulation of healthy neuron functions. It also supports releasing of the neurotransmitters; generation
of the impulses, regulation of the membrane potential and molecular dynamics; controlling of
the axonal transport; controlling of the mitochondrial fission and fusion functions in the peripheral
as well as the central nervous system. Moreover, it plays a key role in the regeneration process of
neuronal cells. Therefore, healthy mitochondria can provide a healthy environment for neuronal
cell function and can treat neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we explore the current view
of healthy mitochondria and their role in healthy neuronal functions.
Keywords: Glial cell, membrane potential, mitochondrial fusion, mitochondrial fission, neurodegenerative disorder, neurotransmitter.
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