Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer
that has increased in recent years worldwide. Primary liver cancer or HCC is considered the 5th and
7th most common cancer among men and women, respectively. It is also the second leading cause
of cancer death worldwide. Unfortunately, HCC is frequently diagnosed at an advanced stage when
the majority of the patients do not have access to remedial therapies. Furthermore, current systemic
chemotherapy shows low efficacy and minimum survival benefits. Liver cancer therapy is a multidisciplinary,
multiple-choice treatment based on the complex interaction of the tumour stage, the
degree of liver disease, and the patient's general state of health.
Methods: In this paper, we reviewed new insights into nonsurgical and surgical treatment of liver
cancer in five English databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Google
Scholar up to December 2019.
Results: The results demonstrated, in addition to current therapies such as chemotherapy and surgical
resection, new approaches, including immunotherapy, viral therapy, gene therapy, new ablation
therapies, and adjuvant therapy, are widely used for the treatment of HCC. In recent years, biomaterials
such as nanoparticles, liposomes, microspheres, and nanofibers are also regarded as reliable
and innovative patents for the treatment and study of liver cancers.
Conclusion: Multidisciplinary and multi-choice treatments and therapies are available for this liver
cancer, while there are differences in liver cancer management recommendations among specialties
and geographic areas. Current results have shown that treatment strategies have been combined
with the advancement of novel treatment modalities. In addition, the use of new approaches with
greater efficacy, such as combination therapy, biomaterials, ablation therapy, etc. can be considered
the preferred treatment for patients.