Background: Dementia and its related types such as Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia
and mixed dementia belong to brain associated diseases, resulting in long-term progressive memory
loss. These diseases are so severe that can affect a person's daily routine. Up to date, treatment of
dementia is still an unmet challenge due to their complex pathophysiology and unavailable efficient
pharmacological approaches. The use of nanotechnology based pharmaceutical products could possibly
improve the management of dementia given that nanocarriers could more efficiently deliver drugs to
Objective: The objective of this study is to provide the current nanotechnology based drug delivery systems
for the treatment of various dementia types. In addition, the current diagnosis biomarkers for the
mentioned dementia types along with their available pharmacological treatment are being discussed.
Methods: An extensive review of the current nanosystems such as brain drug delivery systems against
Alzheimer’s disease, vascular dementia and mixed dementia was performed. Moreover, nanotheranostics
as possible imaging markers for such dementias were also reported.
Results: The field of nanotechnology is quite advantageous for targeting dementia given that nanoscale
drug delivery systems easily penetrate the blood brain barrier and circulate in the body for prolonged
time. These nanoformulations consist of polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured
lipid carriers, microemulsions, nanoemulsions, and liquid crystals. The delivery of the nanotherapeutics
can be achieved via various administration routes such as transdermal, injectable, oral,
and more importantly, through the intranasal route. Nonetheless, the nanocarriers are mostly limited to
Alzheimer’s disease targeting; thus, nanocarriers for other types of dementia should be developed.
Conclusion: To conclude, understanding the mechanism of neurodegeneration and reviewing the current
drug delivery systems for Alzheimer’s disease and other dementia types are significant for medical
and pharmaceutical society to produce efficient therapeutic choices and novel strategies based on multifunctional
and biocompatible nanocarriers, which can deliver the drug sufficiently into the brain.