Severe acute respiratory syndromecoronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a contagious pathogen
responsible for the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The pathogenesis
and immunological responses of SARS-CoV-2 infection are poorly understood until now. Once
a person gets infected by SARS-COV-2, both innate and adaptive immunity gets compromised,
which further plays an important role in making the disease more severe. The host's innate immune
system forms the first layer of defense for protection from viral infections and initiates activation
of the adaptive immune system in order to give maximum protection. The respiratory tract maintains
the balance of T cell, B cell pro- and anti-inflammatory responses in order to protect the tissue
from damage and diseases. In this review, the current updates related to the involvement of the
immune system in the antiviral defense against SARS-CoV-2 have been discussed. These novel insights
within the immunological response in the respiratory tract would support the future development
of vaccines and immunoregulatory therapy for SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, T cell, B cell, immunological response, innate immunity, respiratory tract.
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