Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial, progressive, autoimmune disease with a strong genetic feature that can affect multiple organs, including kidney, eyes, and nerves. Early detection of type 1 diabetes can help critically to avoid serious damages to these organs. MicroRNAs are small RNA molecules that act in post-transcriptional gene regulation by attaching to the complementary sequence in the 3'-untranslated region of their target genes. Alterations in the expression of microRNA coding genes are extensively reported in several diseases such as type 1 diabetes. Presenting non-invasive biomarkers for early detection of type 1 diabetes by quantifying microRNAs gene expression level can be an influential step in biotechnology and medicine. This review discusses the area of microRNAs dysregulation in type 1 diabetes and affected molecular mechanisms involved in pancreatic islet cells formation and dysregulation in the expression of inflammatory elements as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Keywords: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, MicroRNAs, Biomarkers, Autoimmune Disease, Cytokines, Biotechnology
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