Dementia and diabetes are the two major disorders that are linked at both biochemical
and molecular levels, which is due to the existing similarities between pancreatic beta-cells and
neuronal cells at the transcriptional and translational levels. Both diseases have similar causative
genes or factors, and dementia is one of the advanced complications in about 50-52% of patients
with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Further, patients with T2DM are at a higher risk of neuronal
degeneration and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Dementia, which is most common in AD, is associated
with diminished insulin receptors by nearly 80%. The impairment in insulin signaling thus
leads to the development of dementia and AD. Biochemical changes in ‘tau’ protein and amyloid--
beta proteins make them critical players in the formation of plaques in patients with dementia and
AD. Here, we decode various cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with the development
of dementia in patients with diabetes and AD.
Keywords: Dementia, AD (alzheimer disease), T2DM (Type 2 diabetes mellitus), disorders, biochemical, pancreatic.
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