Aortic aneurism development is dependent on internal and external etiological factors that define the
width of the therapeutic window available for the treatment of patients with such diagnosis. In this review, we
provide a detailed overview of the most prominent of these factors. In particular, we discuss the input of elevated
blood pressure to the remodeling of the aortic wall, describe the mechanisms of inflammatory remodeling of
the aorta, and evaluate the cross-interaction of blood pressure, inflammation and immunity during the pathology
development. Better understanding of this interaction will allow broadening the therapeutic options available
for patients with aortic aneurism or preventive strategies for patients with known risk factors. To date, modulation
of the immune signaling appears to be a promising point of the therapeutic intervention for the treatment
of such patients. In this article, we also discuss the search for new diagnostic markers predicting changes
in the width of the therapeutic window for the management of patients with aortic aneurysm.
Keywords: Aortic aneurysm, inflammation, therapeutic window, etiological factors, blood pressure, monocytes and macrophages, danger signals,
neutrophils and mast cells.
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