Aim: To synthesize and evaluate the fused heterocyclic imidazopyridine oxime as a reactivator against paraoxon inhibited acetylcholinesterase.
Background: Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) include parathion, malathion, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos, and diazinon which are commonly used in agriculture for enhancing agricultural productivity via killing crop-damaging pests. However, people may get exposed to OPs pesticides unintentionally/intentionally via ingestion, inhalation or dermal. The current treatment regimen includes reactivator such as mono or bis-pyridinium oximes along with anticholinergic and an anticonvulsant drugs are recommended for the treatment of OP poisoning. Unfortunately, the drawback of the existing reactivator is that owing to the permanent charge present on the pyridinium makes them inefficient to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and reactivate OP-inhibited central nervous system (CNS) acetylcholinesterase. Therefore, there is a need of reactivator that could cross the BBB and reactivate the OP inhibited acetylcholinesterase.
Objective: The objectives of the study were synthesis, molecular docking, BSA binding and in-vitro estimation of oximes of various substituted imidazo [1,2-a]pyridine against paraoxon inhibited acetylcholinesterase.
Method: The reactivators were synthesized in three steps and characterized using various spectroscopic techniques. Molecular docking study was performed on 2WHP and 3ZLV PDB using Autodock tool. The acid dissociation constant (pKa) of oximes was calculated experimentally and drug-likeness properties of the oximes were calculated In silico using mole inspiration and Swiss ADME software. The binding of oximes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also investigated by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The reactivation potential of the oximes was determined by in vitro enzymatic assay.
Result: in-silico study inferred that synthesized molecules fulfilled the parameters that required for a successful CNS drug candidate. Further, in-vitro enzymatic assay indicated reasonable reactivation potential of the oximes against paraoxon-inhibited AChE. The binding of oximes with bovine serum albumin (BSA) revealed static quenching of intrinsic fluorescence of BSA by oxime. The binding constant value and number of binding sites were found 0.24 mol-1 and 1 respectively.
Conclusion: The results of study concluded that this scaffold could be used for further designing of more efficient uncharged reactivators.