Evaluation of Allergic Reactions Following Intravenous Infusion of Polyvalent Antivenom in Snakebite Patients

(E-pub Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Ghafar-Ali Mahmoudi, Maryam Ahadi, Ali Fouladvand, Bareza Rezaei, Zahra Bodagh, Peyman Astaraki*

Journal Name: Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry - Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents


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Abstract:

Background:Antivenom is a gold-standard treatment for snakebite envenoming. However, adverse reactions to snake antivenom are common in many parts.

Objective:The aim of this study was to evaluate the allergic reactions following intravenous administration of antivenom sera.

Methods:This was retrospective study, conducted snakebites patients referred to the Rahimi Hospital in Khorramabad. The files of these patients were accessed for demographic data, snakebite-related data, treatment provided, clinical presentation and allergic reaction status as a result of antivenom treatment.

Results:141 cases were investigated including 73.8% male and 26.2% female patients. The mean age of the patients was 38.1±17.1years. Age group 30-39 years accounted for highest number of snakebite cases (24.1%). A majority of victims (89.4%) were from the rural areas. Most of the patients (51.8%) were bitten in the spring and highest number of snakebite were reported in May (39.1%). The most common site of snakebite was lower extremities (50.4%) and upper extremities (44.7%). Among clinical feature of snakebite, pain was the most prevalent in 135 cases (95.7%) followed by swelling (83.7%). The mean antivenom vials used were 6.5±3.7 vials. Allergic reactions occurred in 6 patients (4.26%); reactions were mild in 5 patients and sever in 1patient. The commonest presentation was maculopapular rash (1.4%) and the least common were headache (0.71%), nausea (0.71%), fever (0.71) and hypotension (0.71%).

Conclusion:Snakebite is one of the significantlife-threatening environmental events.Immediate antivenom treatment can reduce mortality however, patients should be carefully monitored for adverse allergic reactions.

Keywords: Snakebites, anti-venom, allergic reaction, venomous, mortality, life-threatening

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(E-pub Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1871523020666210204143756
Price: $95

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