Background : Curcumin is a well-documented bioactive compound present in Curcuma sp., a tropical medicinal plant. This substance exhibits broad spectrum biological activities including antivirus. Despite, the lack of pharmaceutical properties of curcumin limits its clinical use.
Objective : This study aims to produce curcumin nanoemulsion with different surface charge (curcumin (+) nanoemulsion and curcumin (-) nanoemulsion) and to evaluate its physical characteristics, in vitro cell cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against dengue virus (DENV) 1 and 2.
Methods : Two forms of nanoemulsion were prepared which were differed from their surface charge through spontaneous procedure resulting similar characteristics except the zeta potential value. Cytotoxicity was determined using RT-PCR method in A549 cell line and anti-DENV properties were determined by calculation of inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) value.
Results : The positively charge of curcumin-loaded nanoemulsion showed better effect in reducing the viral replication represented by lower IC50 value. In addition, DENV-1 was more sensitive and responsive to curcumin as compared to DENV-2.
Conclusion : Positive surface charge of curcumin-loaded nanoemulsion improves the antiviral effect of the curcumin suggesting a promising approach for alternative treatment for dengue virus infection.