Background: The term “hematological malignancy” means a cluster
of cancer and tumor conditions, including leukemia, lymphoma, myeloproliferative
neoplasm, lymphoproliferative disorders, etc., involved with circulatory organs
like blood, bone marrow, lymph, and lymph nodes.
Introduction: The increase in the number of hematological malignancy-related
cases in our modern society urges suitable treatment of such disease. In this current
era, there is still a major deficiency in the number of suitable chemotherapeutic
agents for the treatment of hematological malignancies.
Methods: The researchers were successful in identifying various cellular, extracellular
proteins, and cytokines, as well as their involvement in different hematological
malignancies via epigenetic modulation and regulation of other proteins
and signaling pathways. Here, we have discussed the structural aspects, connection,
and pathophysiological contributions of a group of different cellular and extracellular
proteins that are regulated and/or have a significant influence on the
progression of different hematological malignancies along with their potent inhibitors.
Result and Conclusion: The correlation of physiological proteins with cancerous
hematological conditions has been discussed here. It can be crucial for the development
of potent inhibitors as chemotherapeutic agents to contest such malignancies.
This review will also be useful in the chemotherapeutic agent development
by providing crucial information about such hematological malignancy-related
proteins and their inhibitors. The repurposed drugs with potential for anticancer
applications are also discussed.