Background: Commercial poultry farming is expanding every day
and contributing to the provision of affordable and high-quality protein. However,
this sector is confronted with many diseases of which coccidiosis is among
the most important. There are many registered patents affirming the health benefits
of Garcinia kola in poultry.
Objective: Evaluation of in vitro anticoccidial activities of the extracts and fractions
of Garcinia kola against Eimeria tenella oocyst was carried out.
Methods: Fresh seeds of G. kola were collected, dried under shade at room temperature,
and pulverized using a mortar and a pestle. The powder was exhaustively
extracted with a soxhlet apparatus using 70% methanol, and the crude
methanol extract (CME) was concentrated to dryness using a rotary evaporator.
The CME was further partitioned using butanol, ethylacetate, and n-hexane. The
CME, butanol fraction (BTF), ethylacetate fraction (EAF), and hexane fraction
(HXF) were concentrated in vacuo and tested for the presence of phytochemical
constituents using standard procedures. Similarly, the CME, butanol, ethyl acetate,
and hexane fractions were evaluated in vitro for oocyst sporulation inhibition.
Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of cardiac glycosides,
saponins, carbohydrates, steroids/triterpenes, tannins, flavonoids, and alkaloids
in the CME and BTF. The EAF contains all the metabolites mentioned except
saponins. Similarly, HXF contains only cardiac glycosides, tannins, and steroids/
triterpenes. The CME and BTF caused a concentration-dependent increase in
the inhibition of sporulation of unsporulated oocysts of E. tenella. In the acute
toxicity studies, the CME did not produce any toxic effect or mortality at doses
between 10 and 5000 mg/kg. The CME was then considered safe, and the LD50
was assumed to be >5000 mg/kg.
Conclusion: The data obtained in this study suggested that the crude methanol
extract (CME) of G. kola could be an appreciable beneficial effect as an anticoccidial
agent against Eimeria tenella oocyst.