Background: Solanum lycocarpum is a medicinal plant used in Brazil with hypoglycemic
activity by its fruits use. However, the fruits production is restricted in some periods of the
year, differently of leaves.
Objective: To evaluate the effects of hydroalcoholic extracts of S. lycocarpum leaves in alloxan-induced
Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract of S. lycocarpum was characterized by phytochemical and GCMS
analysis. The Antidiabetic activity was assessed following treatment for 22 days with S. lycocarpum
extract at 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg. Bodyweight, water, and food intake, glycemia, biochemical
parameters, anatomy-histopathology of the pancreas, liver and kidney, and expression of
target genes were analyzed. In addition, oral acute toxicity was evaluated.
Results: Animals treated showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in glycemia following a dose of
125 mg/kg. Food intake remained similar for all groups. Decreased polydipsia symptoms were observed
after treatment with 250 (p < 0.001) and 500 mg/kg (p < 0.01) compared with diabetic control,
although normal rates were observed when 125 mg/kg was administered. A protective effect
was also observed in the pancreas, liver, and kidneys, through the regeneration of the islets. Hypoglycemic
activity can be attributed to myo-inositol, which stimulates insulin secretion, associated
with α-tocopherol, which prevents damage from oxidative stress and apoptosis of β-pancreatic
cells by an increased Catalase (CAT) and Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) mRNA expression.
The toxicological test demonstrated safe oral use of the extract under the present conditions.
Conclusion: Hydroalcoholic extract of S. lycocarpum promotes the regulation of diabetes in the
case of moderate glycemic levels, by decreasing glycemia and exerting protective effects on the