The strategy used for the treatment of given brain cancer is critical in determining the post effects and survival. An oncological diagnosis of tumour evaluates a range of parameters such as shape, size, volume, location and neurological complexity that define the symptomatic severity. The evaluation determines the suitable treatment approach chosen from a range of options such as surgery, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, radiation therapy and other targeted therapies. Often, a combination of such therapies is applied to achieve superior results. Radiotherapy serves as a better treatment strategy because of a higher survival rate. It offers the flexibility of synergy with other treatment strategies and fewer side effects on organs at risk. This Review presents a radiobiological perspective in the treatment of brain tumour. The cause, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, post-treatment effects and the framework involved in its elimination are summarized.