Derivatives of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides play important roles in biological
processes. Monosaccharides are the single carbohydrate building blocks, such as glucose, xylose, and
fructose. Oligosaccharides are composed of 2-10 monosaccharides, including disaccharides and trisaccharides.
Moreover, monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and their derivatives are vital molecules
with various biological properties, including anticancer activity, antiviral activity, insecticidal activity,
antimicrobial activity, and antioxidant activity. This review covers a survey of structural modifications,
biological activities, and mechanisms of action of monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and their
derivatives. Additionally, their structure-activity relationships are also concluded.