Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was originated first in Wuhan, China,
in December 2019, and it is known to be caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-
2 (SARS CoV-2). The management of COVID-19 could be achieved by means of the usage
of the repurposed drugs, inhibiting the viral entry and/or viral fusion such as umifenovir, Baricitinib,
Camostat mesylate, Nafamostat mesylate, and the drugs blocking the viral replication, which
include favipiravir, remdesivir, Lopinavir/ritonavir, Ribavirin, Sofosbuvir, chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine.
Objective: Along with the drugs that target the SARS-CoV-2 virus, adjunctive therapies are also
employed. This review focuses on the adjuvant therapies employed to manage the COVID-19-associated
complications, such as cytokine storm, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), respiratory
failure, cardiac injury, coagulopathy, and multi-organ failure.
Methods: The literature was searched in databases such as Medline/PubMed Central/PubMed, Google
Scholar, Science Direct, EBSCO, Scopus, EMBASE, Directory of open access journals (DOAJ),
and reference lists to identify relevant articles.
Results: Various studies have been identified for the use of corticosteroids, interferons, monoclonal
antibodies, etoposide, ruxolitinib, anticoagulants, convalescent plasma, immunoglobulins, mesenchymal
stem cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and inhaled nitric oxide (NO) as adjuvant therapy to
manage the patients with COVID-19 along with the repurposed drugs targeting SARS-CoV-2.
Conclusion: The safety and efficacy of adjuvant therapy are needed to be confirmed by various ongoing
randomized controlled clinical trials.