The advancements in cancer treatment have no significant effect on ovarian cancer [OC]. The lethality of the
OC remains on the top list of the gynecological cancers. The long term survival rate of the OC patients with the advanced
stage is less than 30%. The only effective measure to increase the survivability of the patient is the detection of disease in
stage I. The earlier the diagnosis, the more will be the chances of survival of the patient. But due to the absence of
symptoms and effective diagnosis, only a few % of OC are detected in stage I. A valid, reliable having a high acceptance
test is imperative to detect OC in its early stages. Currently, the most used approach for the detection of OC is the
screening of CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasonography together. This approach has an efficacy of only 30-45%. A large
number of biomarkers are also being explored for their potential use in early screening of OC but no success has been
obtained so far. This review provides an overview of the biomarkers being explored for early-stage diagnosis of OC as
well to increase the current long-term survival rates of OC patients.
Keywords: Ovarian cancer, diagnosis, biomarkers, chemoresistance, human epididymis protein 4 [HE4], carbohydrate antigen 125,
bikunin, osteopontin, kallikreins.
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