The advancements in cancer treatment have no significant effect on
ovarian cancer [OC]. The lethality of the OC remains on the top list of gynecological
cancers. The long term survival rate of the OC patients with the advanced
stage is less than 30%. The only effective measure to increase the survivability
of the patient is the detection of disease in stage I. The earlier the diagnosis, the
more will be the chances of survival of the patient. But due to the absence of
symptoms and effective diagnosis, only a few % of OC are detected in stage I. A
valid, reliable having a high acceptance test is imperative to detect OC in its early
stages. Currently, the most used approach for the detection of OC is the screening
of CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasonography together. This approach has an
efficacy of only 30-45%. A large number of biomarkers are also being explored
for their potential use in the early screening of OC, but no success is seen so far.
This review provides an overview of the biomarkers being explored for early-stage
diagnosis of OC and increasing the current long-term survival rates of OC
Keywords: Ovarian cancer, diagnosis, biomarkers, chemoresistance, human epididymis protein 4 [HE4],
carbohydrate antigen 125, bikunin, osteopontin, kallikreins.
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