Autism - A Comprehensive Array of Prominent Signs and Symptoms

Author(s): Muhammad Shahid Nadeem, Bibi Nazia Murtaza*, Maryam A. Al-Ghamdi, Akbar Ali, Mazin A. Zamzami, Jalaluddin A. Khan, Aftab Ahmad, Mujaddad Ur Rehman, Imran Kazmi*

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 27 , Issue 11 , 2021


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Abstract:

Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental condition characterized by multiple psychological and physiological impairments in young children. According to the recent reports, 1 out of every 58 newly-born children is suffering from autism. The aetiology of the disorder is complex and poorly understood, hindering the adaptation of targeted and effective therapies. There are no well- established diagnostic biomarkers for autism. Hence the analysis of symptoms by the pediatricians plays a critical role in the early intervention.

Methods: In the present report, we have emphasized 24 behavioral, psychological and clinical symptoms of autism.

Results: Impaired social interaction, restrictive and narrow interests, anxiety, depression; aggressive, repetitive, rigid and self-injurious behavior, lack of consistency, short attention span, fear, shyness and phobias, hypersensitivity and rapid mood alterations, high level of food and toy selectivity; inability to establish friendships or follow the instructions; fascination by round spinning objects and eating non-food materials are common psychological characteristics of autism. Speech or hearing impairments, poor cognitive function, gastrointestinal problems, weak immunity, disturbed sleep and circadian rhythms, weak motor neuromuscular interaction, lower level of serotonin and neurotransmitters, headache and body pain are common physiological symptoms.

Conclusion: A variable qualitative and quantitative impact of this wide range of symptoms is perceived in each autistic individual, making him/her distinct, incomparable and exceptional. Selection and application of highly personalized medical and psychological therapies are therefore recommended for the management and treatment of autism.

Keywords: Children, autism, symptoms, psychology, physiology, gastrointestinal.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 27
ISSUE: 11
Year: 2021
Published on: 27 April, 2021
Page: [1418 - 1433]
Pages: 16
DOI: 10.2174/1381612827666210120095829
Price: $65

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