Salivary Aβ Secretion and Altered Oral Microbiome in Mouse Models of AD

Author(s): Angela M. Floden, Mona Sohrabi, Suba Nookala, Jay J. Cao, Colin K. Combs*

Journal Name: Current Alzheimer Research

Volume 17 , Issue 12 , 2020


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Abstract:

Background: Beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide containing plaque aggregations in the brain are a hallmark of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). However, Aβ is produced by cell types outside of the brain suggesting that the peptide may serve a broad physiologic purpose.

Objective: Based upon our prior work documenting expression of amyloid β precursor protein (APP) in intestinal epithelium we hypothesized that salivary epithelium might also express APP and be a source of Aβ.

Methods: To begin testing this idea, we compared human age-matched control and AD salivary glands to C57BL/6 wild type, AppNL-G-F , and APP/PS1 mice.

Results: Both male and female AD, AppNL-G-F , and APP/PS1 glands demonstrated robust APP and Aβ immunoreactivity. Female AppNL-G-F mice had significantly higher levels of pilocarpine stimulated Aβ 1-42 compared to both wild type and APP/PS1 mice. No differences in male salivary Aβ levels were detected. No significant differences in total pilocarpine stimulated saliva volumes were observed in any group. Both male and female AppNL-G-F but not APP/PS1 mice demonstrated significant differences in oral microbiome phylum and genus abundance compared to wild type mice. Male, but not female, APP/PS1 and AppNL-G-F mice had significantly thinner molar enamel compared to their wild type counterparts.

Conclusion: These data support the idea that oral microbiome changes exist during AD in addition to changes in salivary Aβ and oral health.

Keywords: Microbiome, Alzheimer, amyloid, inflammation, saliva, biomarker.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 17
ISSUE: 12
Year: 2020
Published on: 22 February, 2021
Page: [1133 - 1144]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/1567205018666210119151952
Price: $65

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