Background: Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4) is a novel adipocytokine which has been proposed to play a role in modulating
energy metabolism and pathogeneses of atherosclerosis. However, no published research is available about the mechanisms
underlying the anti-atherosclerotic effect of Nrg4. Regarding the close link between adipocytokines and immune system,
we wonder whether there is a relation between Nrg4 and athero-protective cytokines. The aim of this study was to
investigate the relationship between serum Nrg4 levels and type 2 cytokines in Iranian patients with coronary artery disease
Methods: In this case-control study, 125 CAD patients were compared to 55 healthy controls. Serum concentration of Nrg4,
IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13 were measured using ELISA. The associations of circulating Nrg4 and IL-5, IL-9, IL-13 were assessed
using linear regression analyses.
Results: Serum concentration of IL-9 was significantly higher in patients compared to the healthy controls (317.9±139
versus 228.3±99.1, P= ˂0.0001). IL-13 and Nrg4 were significantly lower in patients compared to the healthy controls
(4.3±3.7 versus 6.1±3.9, P=0.01 and 0.5 versus 1.3, P=0.001 respectively). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that
IL-9 was negatively correlated with Nrg4 (β= -0.3, P=0.009).
Conclusion: Our study ،for the first-time, provides the clinical evidence revealing that circulating Nrg4 concentrations are
inversely correlated with IL-9 in Iranian patients with CAD, suggesting that the protective role of Nrg4 on atherosclerosis
may be, in part, mediated by the proatherogenic cytokine, IL-9.