Basic Biology of Trypanosoma brucei with Reference to the Development of Chemotherapies

Author(s): Samuel Dean*

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 27 , Issue 14 , 2021


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Abstract:

Trypanosoma brucei are protozoan parasites that cause the lethal human disease African sleeping sickness and the economically devastating disease of cattle, Nagana. African sleeping sickness, also known as Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), threatens 65 million people and animal trypanosomiasis makes large areas of farmland unusable. There is no vaccine and licensed therapies against the most severe, late-stage disease are toxic, impractical and ineffective. Trypanosomes are transmitted by tsetse flies, and HAT is therefore predominantly confined to the tsetse fly belt in sub-Saharan Africa. They are exclusively extracellular and they differentiate between at least seven developmental forms that are highly adapted to host and vector niches. In the mammalian (human) host they inhabit the blood, cerebrospinal fluid (late-stage disease), skin, and adipose fat. In the tsetse fly vector they travel from the tsetse midgut to the salivary glands via the ectoperitrophic space and proventriculus. Trypanosomes are evolutionarily divergent compared with most branches of eukaryotic life. Perhaps most famous for their extraordinary mechanisms of monoallelic gene expression and antigenic variation, they have also been investigated because much of their biology is either highly unconventional or extreme. Moreover, in addition to their importance as pathogens, many researchers have been attracted to the field because trypanosomes have some of the most advanced molecular genetic tools and database resources of any model system. The following will cover just some aspects of trypanosome biology and how its divergent biochemistry has been leveraged to develop drugs to treat African sleeping sickness. This is by no means intended to be a comprehensive survey of trypanosome features. Rather, I hope to present trypanosomes as one of the most fascinating and tractable systems to do discovery biology.

Keywords: Trypanosoma brucei, trypanosome, kinetoplastid, parasite, African sleeping sickness, trypanosomiasis, chemotherapy, cell biology, life cycle, tsetse fly.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 27
ISSUE: 14
Year: 2021
Published on: 18 January, 2021
Page: [1650 - 1670]
Pages: 21
DOI: 10.2174/1381612827666210119105008
Price: $65

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