Background: Malaria is caused by different species of Plasmodium; among which P. falciparum is the most severe. Coptis teeta is an ethnomedicinal plant of enormous importance for tribes of north east India.
Objective: In this study, the anti malarial activity of the methanol extracts of Coptis teeta was evaluated in vitro and lead identification via in silico study.
Method: On the basis of the in vitro results, in silico analysis by application of different modules of Discovery Studio 2018 was performed on multiple targets of P. falciparum taking into consideration some of the compounds reported from C. teeta.
Results: The IC50 of the methanol extract of Coptis teeta 0.08 µg/ml in 3D7 strain and 0.7 µg/ml in Dd2 strain of P. falciparum. From the docking study, noroxyhydrastatine was observed to have better binding affinity in comparison to chloroquine. The binding of noroxyhydrastinine with dihydroorotate dehydrogenase was further validated by molecular dynamics simulation and was observed to be significantly stable in comparison to the co-crystal inhibitor. During simulations it was observed that noroxyhydrastinine retained the interactions, giving strong indications of its effectiveness against the P. falciparum proteins and stability in the binding pocket. From the Density-functional theory analysis, the band gap energy of noroxyhydrastinine was found to be 0.186 Ha indicating a favourable interaction.
Conclusion: The in silico analysis as an addition to the in vitro results provide strong evidence of noroxyhydrastinine as an anti malarial agent.