Caffeine Intake and the Risk of Female Primary Infertility: An Evidence-Based Case Report
Pp. 25-36 (12)
A. Zaifar, E.N. Nabila, L.D. Vincent, N.M.P Kusuma, S.S.K. Nareswari and M. Louisa
Female primary infertility is a major global challenge known to be
influenced by dietary factors, including caffeine intake. Moderate caffeine intake has
been proposed to have beneficial health effects while excessive caffeine intake may
represent health risks, with the reproductive system being one of them. However,
studies regarding the association between high caffeine intake and reduced female
infertility are still inconclusive. This evidence-based case report was investigated to
know whether daily high caffeine consumption is associated with female primary
infertility indicated by time to pregnancy (TTP) and spontaneous abortion (SAB).
A structured literature search for cohort, case-control and meta-analysis was performed
using Pubmed and Scopus database. Selected articles were appraised using appraisal
tools from CEBM for meta-analysis, and NOS assessment tool for cohort and casecontrol
Four articles (one meta-analysis, two cohort studies, and one case-control study) were
selected based on predefined selection criteria. High caffeine intake was not associated
with 12 months TTP based on all studies, except for one case-control study. Whereas,
based on the meta-analysis of 27 studies that provided sufficient data on SAB, it was
shown that increased caffeine consumption significantly increased the risk of SAB.
However, studies that assessed SAB had significant heterogeneity.
In conclusion, based on studies with the highest evidence level and appropriate NOS
and CEBM scores, we found an insignificant association, if any, between high caffeine
intake and primary infertility based on two indicators, which were TTP and SAB.
Therefore, we recommend that women trying to achieve pregnancy do not necessarily
need to restrict their caffeine intake.
Female primary infertility, High caffeine intake, Spontaneous
abortion, Time to pregnancy.
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.