Renal Alterations Induced by Chronic Exposure to Therapeutic Doses of Antihypercholestremic Atorvastatin

(E-pub Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Amin Al-Doaiss, Yazun Jarrar, Ali Shati, Mohammad Alfaifi, Mohammed Al-Kahtani, Bashir Jarrar*

Journal Name: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders - Drug Targets
Formerly Current Drug Targets - Immune, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders


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Abstract:

Background: Atorvastatin (ATOR) is widely used for the treatment and prevention of hypercholesterolemia and various diseases, such as cardiovascular complication, with little data about the histopathological and ultrastructural renal alterations that might be induced by this drug.

Objectives: The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential toxicity of therapeutic doses of atorvastatin on the microanatomy and ultrastructure of renal tissues from Wistar albino rats.

Methods: Adult male Wistar albino rats received an oral daily dose of 5 mg/kg body weight for 90 consecutive days. Biopsies from both kidneys of each study rat were taken for histopathological and ultrastructural examination.

Results: ATOR-treated rats exhibited glomerular, tubular, and interstitial histological alterations, including degeneration, necrosis, hyaline droplets, edema, cortical hemorrhages, mesangial hypercellularity, and blood capillary dilation and congestion. In addition, ATOR exposure increased the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase with a concurrent reduction in proteins and neutral mucosubstances content of the glomeruli and renal cells. Moreover, ATOR-treated animals demonstrated glomerular ultrastructural alterations, consisting mainly of capillary tuft dilatation, glomerular basement membrane thickening, and mesangial cell proliferation. The renal cells of the proximal tubules demonstrated damaged mitochondria, degenerative cellular changes, endoplasmic reticulum dilatation, lysosomal and autophagosome activation, nuclear alteration, myelin figure formation, and microvilli disorganization.

Conclusion: The findings of the present work may indicate that ATOR can induce renal histological, histochemical, and ultrastructural alterations that may affect kidney and other vital organ function.

Keywords: Atorvastatin, statins, histopathology, kidney, ultrastructural alterations, antihypercholestremia.

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(E-pub Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1871530321666210106105059
Price: $95

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