Endorphinergic Enhancement Attenuation of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) via Activation of Neuro-immunological Function in the Face of a Viral Pandemic

Author(s): Kenneth Blum*, Edward J. Modestino, David Baron, Raymond Brewer, Panayotis Thanos, Igor Elman, Rajendra D. Badgaiyan, B. William Downs, Debasis Bagchi, Thomas McLaughlin, Abdalla Bowirrat, A. Kenison Roy, Mark S. Gold

Journal Name: Current Psychopharmacology

Volume 10 , Issue 2 , 2021

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Graphical Abstract:


Introduction: Polymorphic gene variants, particularly the genetic determinants of low dopamine function (hypodopaminergia), are known to associate with Substance Use Disorder (SUD) and a predisposition to PTSD. Addiction research and molecular genetic applied technologies supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have revealed the complex functions of brain reward circuitry and its crucial role in addiction and PTSD symptomatology.

Discussion: It is noteworthy that Israeli researchers compared mice with a normal immune system with mice lacking adaptive immunity and found that the incidence of PTSD increased several-fold. It is well established that raising endorphinergic function increases immune response significantly. Along these lines, Blum’s work has shown that D-Phenylalanine (DPA), an enkephalinase inhibitor, increases brain endorphins in animal models and reduces stress in humans. Enkephalinase inhibition with DPA treats Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) by restoring endorphin function. The Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (GARS) can characterize relevant phenotypes, genetic risk for stress vulnerability vs. resilience. GARS could be used to pre-test military enlistees for adaptive immunity or as part of PTSD management with customized neuronutrient supplementation upon return from deployment.

Conclusion: Based on GARS values, with particular emphasis on enhancing immunological function, pro-dopamine regulation may restore dopamine homeostasis. Recognition of the immune system as a “sixth sense” and assisting adaptive immunity with Precision Behavioral Management (PBM), accompanied by other supportive interventions and therapies, may shift the paradigm in treating stress disorders.

Keywords: Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (GARS™), Pro-dopamine regulation (KB220PAM), hypodopaminergia, immune system, endorphinergic.

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Article Details

Year: 2021
Published on: 04 January, 2021
Page: [86 - 97]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/2211556009999210104221215

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