Background: There is a continuous rise in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus
(T2DM) worldwide and most patients are unaware of the presence of this chronic disease at the early
stages. T2DM is associated with complications related to long-term damage and failure of multiple
organ systems caused by vascular changes associated with glycated end products, oxidative
stress, mild inflammation, and neovascularization. Among the most frequent complications of
T2DM observed in about 20-40% of T2DM patients is diabetes nephropathy (DN).
Methods: A literature search was made in view of highlighting the novel applications of genomics,
proteomics and metabolomics, as the new prospective strategy for predicting DN in T2DM patients.
Results: The complexity of DN requires a comprehensive and unbiased approach to investigate the
main causes of disease and identify the most important mechanisms underlying its development.
With the help of evolving throughput technology, rapidly evolving information can now be applied
to clinical practice.
Discussion: DN is also the leading cause of end-stage renal disease and comorbidity independent
of T2DM. In terms of the comorbidity level, DN has many phenotypes; therefore, timely diagnosis
is required to prevent these complications. Currently, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and estimated
glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are gold standards for assessing glomerular damage and
changes in renal function. However, GFR estimation based on creatinine is limited to hyperfiltration
status; therefore, this makes albuminuria and eGFR indicators less reliable for early-stage diagnosis
Conclusion: The combination of genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics assays as suitable biological
systems can provide new and deeper insights into the pathogenesis of diabetes, as well as
discover prospects for developing suitable and targeted interventions.