Pleiotropic Effects of Nitric Oxide on SARS-CoV-2 Infections

Author(s): Barbara Terroni, Juliana Romano Lopes, Chung Man Chin, Jean Leandro Dos Santos*

Journal Name: Coronaviruses
The World's First International Journal Dedicated to Coronaviruses

Volume 2 , Issue 9 , 2021

Article ID: e030821189638
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Graphical Abstract:


Infection by β-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus- 2) alters the homeostasis of the vascular endothelium, promoting an inflammatory state which causes damage and favors the prothrombotic state. The direct viral cytotoxicity induced by the SARS-CoV-2 leads to endothelial cell death; thus, altering the vessel functions. Moreover, SARS-CoV infection induces endothelial dysfunction (ED) and reduces the levels of nitric oxide (NO); thus, aggravating the vascular injuries, which promotes thrombotic events due to an alteration in the homeostasis. NO is a pleiotropic molecule that induces vasodilation, regulates the immune response, inhibits platelet aggregation, and decreases the cellular adhesion to vascular endothelium. Moreover, NO acts directly against invasive agents, exhibiting antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. High levels of NO result in an increase in the ED, causing an inflammatory amplification that aggravates the disease through undesirable positive feedback. The objective of this review was to present and discuss the involvement of NO on ED in SARS-CoV-2 infections. This review may also highlight new perspectives for therapeutic interventions through the supplementation of exogenous NO. The maintenance of homeostatic NO levels could represent a useful approach in the prevention of coronavirus-induced ED.

Keywords: SARS-COV-2, COVID-19, nitric oxide, NO donors, inhaled NO, endothelium dysfunction.

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Article Details

Year: 2021
Published on: 30 December, 2020
Article ID: e030821189638
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/2666796701999201230121515

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