Aims and Objectives: Usually, the increase in temperature of an individual indicates the
possibility of being infected with a disease that might be risky to other people, such as coronavirus.
Traditional techniques for monitoring body core-temperature require body contact either by oral,
rectum, axillary, or tympanic means, which are unfortunately considered intrusive in nature as well
as causes of contagion. Therefore, sensing human core-temperature non-intrusively and remotely is
the objective of this research.
Background: Nowadays, increasing the level of medical sectors is a necessary target for research
operations, especially the development of integrated circuits, sensors, and cameras, to make life
Methods: The solution is proposed as an embedded system consisting of the Arduino microcontroller,
which is trained with a model of Mean Absolute Error (MAE) analysis for predicting Contactless
Core-Temperature (CCT), which is the actual body temperature.
Results: The Arduino microcontroller was connected to an Infrared-Thermal sensor named
MLX90614 as an input signal and was connected to the LCD to display the CCT. To evaluate the
proposed system, experiments were conducted on 31 subjects, and contactless temperature from the
three face sub-regions was sensed, including forehead, nose, and cheek.
Conclusion: Experimental results demonstrated that CCT could be measured remotely from the
human face, including three face sub-regions, among which the forehead region should be preferred
(a smallest error rate of 2.3%), rather than nose and cheek regions (2.6 % and 3.2% error
rate, respectively) for CCT measurement due to the lowest error rates achieved.