Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Humans and Animals into Insulin-producing Cells: An Overview In Vitro Induction Forms

Author(s): Bruna O.S. Câmara, Bruno M. Bertassoli, Natália M. Ocarino, Rogéria Serakides*

Journal Name: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy

Volume 16 , Issue 6 , 2021

Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor


The use of stem cells in cell therapies has shown promising results in the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes mellitus, in both humans and animals. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from various locations, including bone marrow, adipose tissues, synovia, muscles, dental pulp, umbilical cords, and the placenta. In vitro, by manipulating the composition of the culture medium or transfection, MSCs can differentiate into several cell lineages, including insulin-producing cells (IPCs). Unlike osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation, for which the culture medium and time are similar between studies, studies involving the induction of MSC differentiation in IPCs differ greatly. This divergence is usually evident in relation to the differentiation technique used, the composition of the culture medium, the cultivation time, which can vary from a few hours to several months, and the number of steps to complete differentiation. However, although there is no “gold standard” differentiation medium composition, most prominent studies mention the use of nicotinamide, exedin-4, ß-mercaptoethanol, fibroblast growth factor b (FGFb), and glucose in the culture medium to promote the differentiation of MSCs into IPCs. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to investigate the stages of MSC differentiation into IPCs both in vivo and in vitro, as well as address differentiation techniques and molecular actions and mechanisms by which some substances, such as nicotinamide, exedin-4, ß-mercaptoethanol, FGFb, and glucose, participate in the differentiation process.

Keywords: Adult stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, cellular differentiation, insulin-producing cells, ß-mercaptoethanol, fibroblast.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2021
Published on: 29 December, 2020
Page: [695 - 709]
Pages: 15
DOI: 10.2174/1574888X16666201229124429
Price: $65

Article Metrics

PDF: 107