Cancer is a genetic disease triggered by gene mutations, which control cell growth and their functionality inherited from previous generations. The targeted therapy of some tumors was not especially successful. A host of new techniques can be used to treat aptamer-mediated targeting, cancer immunotherapy, cancer stem cell (CSC) therapy, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), hormone therapy, intracellular cancer cell targeting, nanoparticles, and viral therapy. These include chemical-analog conjugation, gene delivery, ligand-receptor-based targeting, prodrug therapies, and triggered release strategies. Virotherapy is a biotechnological technique for turning viruses into therapeutic agents by the reprogramming of viruses to cure diseases. In several tumors, including melanoma, multiple myeloma, bladder cancer, and breast cancer, the oncolytic capacity of oncolytic Coxsackievirus has been studied. The present study aims to assess oncolytic Coxsackievirus and its mechanisms of effect on cancer cells.