The Role of Houseflies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) as a Mechanical Vector for ESKAPE Pathogens and Drug Resistance

Author(s): Mohsen Karami, Mojtaba Taghizadeh Armaki, Ramazan Rajabnia, Saeid Mahdavi Omran, Ali Heidarpour, Abazar Pournajaf*

Journal Name: Anti-Infective Agents
Formerly Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 19 , Issue 4 , 2021

Article ID: e130621189459
Become EABM
Become Reviewer
Call for Editor


Introduction: The housefly (Musca domestica) is an important host for various pathogenic bacteria, including the ESKAPE group, and acts as a reservoir for transmitting resistance factors. In this regard, this study was performed in order to survey the role of houseflies as a mechanical vector for ESKAPE pathogens and antibiotic resistance profiles of these strains in the four teaching hospitals and rural areas in Babol, north of Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 280 adult house flies were collected with a sterilized nylon net.

Methods: All samples were put inside separately in a sterile tube and anesthetized using freezing at 0ᵒC for 5 minutes. Bacterial isolates were identified from the external and internal surfaces. The antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by the disk diffusion method. A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, and Enterobacter isolates were not detected in rural samples. Only one methicillin-resistance S. aureus was found in rural flies. In hospitals, the prevalence of the ESKAPE pathogens in the Cuticular surface and GI were 22.9% and 22.1%, respectively.

Results: In total, the highest and lowest frequency rate was related to P. aeruginosa (6.1%) and A. baumannii (1.1%). Also, 66.7%, 5.9%, and 12.5% of A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, and Enterobacter were resistant to imipenem, respectively. 21.4% of E. faecium were resistant to vancomycin. In total, 63 (22.5%) bacterial species collected from both the cuticular surface and GI, 29 (46%) were multidrug- resistant (MDR).

Conclusion: Houseflies obtained from hospitals may be involved in the distribution of drug-resistant bacteria and may increase the potential of human exposure to drug-resistant organisms.

Keywords: ESKAPE pathogens, antibacterial resistance, Musca domestica L., multi drug-resistant bacteria, houseflies.

Rights & PermissionsPrintExport Cite as

Article Details

Year: 2021
Published on: 23 December, 2020
Article ID: e130621189459
Pages: 6
DOI: 10.2174/2211352518999201224101422
Price: $25

Article Metrics

PDF: 197