COVID-19: An Update on Pathogenesis and Treatment

(E-pub Ahead of Print)

Author(s): Marwa Abduallah AL Dhamen, Abrar Fouad Alhashim, Hawra Hussain Alqattan, Faheem Hyder Pottoo*

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

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In 2019, a new virus –SARS-COV2 emerged in china which infected many people affecting mainly the respiratory system. SARS-COV2 gets transmitted by inhalation of droplets from infected persons. Symptoms start to appear after the incubation period of the virus which ranges from 2 to 14 days. In most people, symptoms are usually mild such as fever, sore throat, cough, chest tightness and fatigue. In other people, the disease might progress into severe pneumonia leading to several fatal consequences. Treatment is usually supportive and the role of antiviral is not established yet. Home isolation for mild cases is important for the prevention of the transmission of infection. Although the rate of transmission of this virus is faster than other viruses from the family such as MERS-CoV, it has a lower fatality rate. The main difference in the genome structure of this family which make it distinguishable from other viruses is its use of (+) ssRNA as its genetic material which is comprised of 5’ cap located at one end and 3' polyadenylation tract at the other end. During infection of an exposed host cell, viral-encoded protease cleaves the polyprotein that results from translation of 5’ open reading frame (ORF) of the genome, culminating in releasing of multiple nonstructural proteins such as helicase (Hel), adenosine triphosphate (ATPase) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (Rep). These proteins are responsible for the replication process in addition to the syntheses of the sub genomic mRNA used as transcription templet strand. In this review article we discussed the transmission pathways, genetic sequence and current treatment approach of COVID-19.

Keywords: SARS-COV2, MERS-CoV, COVID-19, acute respiratory tract infection, cytokine storm, immunomodulators

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(E-pub Ahead of Print)
DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666201222161312
Price: $95

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