Background: The widespread uses of nanomaterials for healthcare and biomedical applications,
such as their anti-cancer activity, anti-oxidant activity and antimicrobial activity, have
been avidly studied in recent decades. Owing to the cytotoxicity and harmful by-product generation
associated with chemical reagents, plant and microbial-based approaches have been preferred
for synthesis purposes.
Results: These synthesized nanoparticles possess characteristic properties attributed to their nanosize
compared to their macroscopic counterparts. Furthermore, the functionalization of nanomaterials
via chemical, physical and biofunctionalization techniques improves the intrinsic, tactile, and
associated properties of materials and devices. The functionalized nanomaterials have been explored
for the improved colloidal stability, development of smart nanocapsules, DNA-nanoparticles
conjugates, protein-nanoparticles conjugates and nano-antibiotics.
Conclusion: In this review, the synthesis of biogenic nanoparticles, their properties and applications
are explored, and their surface modification and implications towards improved properties are