Background: In the past two decades, the human coronavirus (HCoV) outbreaks have
gripped the international communities almost six times in different forms [HCoV-OC43 (2001);
HCoV-NL63 (2004); SARS-CoV (2003); HCoV HKU1 (2005); MERS- CoV (2012); SARS-CoV-
-2 (2019)]. These emerging pathogens have been proven very challenging from medical perspectives,
economic conditions, and psychological impact on human society.
Introduction: SARS-CoV-2, a novel coronavirus, has evidenced a historic yet troublesome pandemic
across the globe. In humans, its clinical manifestations may range from asymptomatic, severe
pneumonia to mortality. Bats are the natural reservoirs of a variety of viruses belonging to the
family Coronaviridae. Most of the bats harboring coronaviruses mainly reside in Asian and African
Objective: The objective was to describe the various characteristic features of all coronaviruses,
clinical manifestations, and complications associated with SARS-CoV-2. The major goal was to
highlight the involvement of the strong immune system of bats in the cross-species transmission of
coronaviruses in intermediate hosts and, finally, zoonotic transmission in humans.
Methodology: A systematic literature search was conducted for high quality research and review articles.
We searched the databases for articles published between the year 1972 to 2020 with search
terms zoonosis, coronaviruses, zoonotic transmissions, clinical manifestations, and the immune system
Conclusion: The domestic and non-domestic animals come in closer contact with humans. Some
requisite measures should be taken to decrease the contact with livestock to prevent further threatening
viral transmissions. Furthermore, the remarkable immune system of bats is required to inquire
thoroughly to develop novel therapeutics to conquer the evolving coronaviruses in the future.