Background: In the past two decades, the human coronavirus (HCoV) outbreaks have gripped the international
communities almost six times [HCoV-OC43 (2001); HCoV-NL63 (2004); SARS-CoV (2003); HCoV HKU1 (2005);
MERS-CoV (2012); SARS-CoV-2 (2019)]. These emerging pathogens have been proven very challenging from medical
perspectives, economical conditions, and psychological impact on human society.
Introduction: SARS-CoV-2, a novel coronavirus, has evidenced a historic yet troublesome pandemic across the globe. In
humans, its clinical manifestations may range from asymptomatic, severe pneumonia to mortality. Bats are the natural
reservoirs of a variety of viruses belonging to family Coronaviridae. Most of the bats harboring coronaviruses mainly reside
in Asian and African regions.
Objective: The objective was to describe the various characteristic features of all coronaviruses, clinical manifestations and
complications associated with SARS-CoV-2. The major goal was to highlight the involvement of strong immune system of
bats in cross-species transmission of coronaviruses in intermediate hosts and finally zoonotic transmission in humans.
Methodology: The systematic literature search was conducted for high quality research and review articles. We searched the
databases for articles published between year 1972 to 2020 with search terms zoonosis, coronaviruses, zoonotic
transmissions, clinical manifestations and immune system of bats.
Conclusion: The domestic and non-domestic animals are coming in closer contact with humans. Some requisite measures
should be taken to decrease the contact with livestock to prevent further threatening viral transmissions. Furthermore, the
remarkable immune system of bats is required to inquire thoroughly to develop novel therapeutics to conquer over the
evolving coronaviruses in future.