Background: There is a vital need to advance a cheap, quick, and robust strategy to detect biological proteins
since these biomolecules are regularly utilized as biomarkers responsible for diagnosing many diseases such as
malignancies. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have attracted extensive consideration of researchers in various fields
because of their particular optical properties and extraordinary execution in photovoltaic gadgets, photocatalysis, and
biological imaging. These nanomaterials adequately improve the sensor performance for their reproducibility, selectivity
just as effectively. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) comprise discrete highlights, starting as attractive fluorophores and
superb electro-impulses inferable from their photographic soundness, water-solvency, biocompatibility, non-poisonous
quality, and making them an ideal contender for a wide range of new biomedical applications.
Methods: All online published studies and online content related to the detection of biological proteins and
immunological assays using graphene quantum dots from January 2000 to 2020 are reviewed. This review begins with a
rundown of the new methodologies and various structures of graphene quantum dots. In the next step, the detailed
description is followed on their applications in the fields of protein and immune detection for drug probing applications.
Results: After providing a brief review for chemical and biological synthesis of GQD, in this review, we categorized the
detection method of biological proteins using GQD into four main categories including, GQD fluorescence sensors for
serum enzyme detection, ultra-trace detection of biological using GQDs, GQD-based immunological assays
(immunosensors) especially for cancer and cardiac biomarkers, protein probing for theragnostic purposes.
Conclusion: Through this review, we discuss the current trends and future application of graphene quantum dots and their
role in proteins and other biomolecules detection, diagnosis in diseases, and their importance in theragnostic applications.